Blackjack has long been one of the most popular casino games for a good reason. It’s easy to learn yet complex enough that even professionals can’t get enough. The game uses a deck with 52 cards; you’ll find no other card counting system quite like it in this global family tree. Blackjack, formerly known as “black jack” or Vingt-Un is a casino banking game.
Blackjack players do not compete against each other. The game is a comparing card where you try to get closer or have the best hand without beating anyone else. Still, if that isn’t possible, then your score will be lower than theirs because two more decks are always available for play after one player beats all those on their own.
History of Blackjack
Cervantes was a gambler who wrote about card cheats in Seville. The protagonist of his “Rinconete y Cortadillo”, from Novelas Ejemplares, are proficient at cheating veintiuna (Spanish for Twenty-One) and state that the object is to reach 21 points without going over while ace values 1 or 11 which means they had it down pat by then already. This original game played with a Spanish baraja deck, but eventually, other countries adopted them too, including France, where its name changed into Vingt-un.
“Rinconete y Cortadillo” is a game played all over Europe and Asia, dating back to at least 1601. Its name means a few strokes or simply “the handful” in Spanish, which refers to the number of points you get for successful rolls.
Blackjack is one of the most popular card games in France, where it was first played during Restoration times. The game’s roots can be traced back to 1800 when an English variant by that name became popularized throughout Great Britain and eventually America after being renamed ‘black jack’ around1899.
When Vingt-Un (“Twenty One”) was introduced into the United States in 1868, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate play. One such offer was a ten-to-one payout if your hand consisted of an ace and blackjack (Jacks or Queens). This particular jackpot became known as “BlackJacks” because it paid off at 10:1 instead of straight-up bets on whether you had cards showing or not.
The bonus was usually an ace and any 10-point card, but since ‘black jack’ also refers to the mineral zincblende, which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests it might have been transferred by them as well for their advantage in playing games like poker where you can get lucky sometimes.
There isn’t much historical evidence about these special hand combinations, so we’ll leave things at how they were known until today – having both “aces” w/a the Climate Control deck.
The first mathematically sound optimal blackjack strategy was published in 1956. This paper became the foundation for future efforts to beat this game and is still used today.
The author, Roger Baldwin from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), along with colleagues Wilbert Cantey & Herbert Maisel, amongst others, came up with an elegant solution that they called “the optimum.”
It involved counting cards and knowing when it’s okay not to count them – but how does one do so? They figured all these things out using mathematics alone- a skill few people possess nowadays, largely because schools aren’t teaching practical applications anymore.
Rules of Blackjack to Play at Casino
There are five to nine positions at a blackjack table and they’re all taken up by players. Bettors place their bets in front or behind each position, depending on where you want them placed; there’s no limit to how much money one person can put into this game.
The dealer starts off every round with an initial hand consisting only of cards from both decks mixed and any spare pieces left over after someone else has already played their suitable card(s).
The dealer deals from their left (“first base”) to the right, after which they get two cards visible. The first card of the game is dealt face up. Suppose this makes them an ‘improvement’ or Blackjack. In that case, they look at their hole card where another new hand begins with a second down-facing playing piece for all players involved in that round instead – these are sometimes called “no hole” games because there’s no need to peek at one specific spot during play.
Dealers deal the cards from one or two handheld decks, either directly onto an already-dealt table with no further consultation (as often seen in games like Blackjack) or by shoeing their shoes.
Single card hands are dealt clockwise around, turn dealerships left, and then follow up face down if wanted before being turned over after use; this allows players more opportunity when it comes time to place bets on where they think those first two elements will land.
The game of Blackjack is all about strategy. There are many different strategies one can employ. Still, the key to winning money in this popular betting environment revolves around card counting and knowing when it’s time for you or your partner-on defense.
The first step towards becoming an expert blackjack player starts by understanding how many cards should be dealt per shuffle before they’re thrown into rotation. Then maintaining count while avoiding exceeding 21 points total upon initial exposure or even getting close enough so that dealer has no choice but to bust out with less than 18 remaining flips left.
Face cards are the most important part of any game. They count as 10 points while jacks and queens each equal 1/2 point; aces can be either 11 or 12, depending on what kind you have chosen to play with.
If your total reaches 21 points before anything else does- it’s time for some “bustin’.”
All bets against this hand immediately lose value once someone busts through their ranks which means no more betting unless another player over crows (or under crowns) them first by at least two spots. Bets must always remain open until all players decide who will bet last.
After the boxes have finished playing, it is determined who wins by drawing cards until one player reaches 17 or more (a dealer’s total including an ace valued at 11).
The hand that busts does not give up their wager entirely- instead, they split any remaining bets between themselves and other players whose hands are higher than theirs.
The game of Blackjack is all about getting a lucky hand.
If you get the natural or 21, it lights out for your opponent and wins immediately unless they also have one! In ties ( pushes/standoffs), bets are returned without adjustment so long as neither player nor the dealer has won more than half their respective numbers in points. But things will become very interesting if someone does happen in such an unfortunate situation.
In most cases, the house advantage is even money. However, some cards give players an edge, like blackjacks which traditionally pay out at 3 to 2 odds. But many casinos offer them less than this amount, such as 2:1 or just 1 unit.
Insurance is a side bet that can be placed when the dealer’s up card turns out to be an ace.
You may also have “Dealer Match,” where your cards match what they are showing on their screen and win money from them.
Decisions a Player Can Make
Double down on what you know. It’s time for some card-playing of the highest order.
Double down with confidence, or show your hand by standing up straight and giving it all that bearing silent type respect – this is poker, after all.
Nobody does business without laying their cards face up, now do they? And if someone has been betting heavily since before we even started playing, chances are good; there will be further action soon enough.
- Hit: Take another card. Signal: The player taps or scratches at the table with their fingers to find a winning hand of cards that are still face up, then signs off when they have won using one simple motion.
- Stand: Stay put. Don’t take any more cards! Also known as “stand pat,” this phrase means that you should keep whatever hand(s) are already out before deciding what to do next in the game. Signal: Whether it be sticking with one card or checking for better ones among your other options available at this time (which could include sitting back down).
- Double Down: If you’re willing to take one more card, increase your bet by 100%. This means that instead of placing it all in front like before (with no additional wagers), now place half as much as possible. If there is not enough space for this change, I want players who do not control either side to make such moves- point with fingers while talking loudly enough so everyone can hear.
- Split: To split aces, players must opt-in. If they do not wish to exercise this option, then it is possible for them only win or lose one of the hands after splitting due to some restrictions on how you can use gambling chips at certain casinos. There are various ways that blackjack games may end up being won, such as: doubling your bet when playing against another person who has also wagered 10 points. Re-splitting cards if you’ve already hit an ace, but no ten values remain (this includes hitting ten higher than expected); 720 flip varieties where anything over value becomes favorable towards having two individual bets rather than just 1.
- Surrender: A surrender is an option that some casinos can give. This means you have the chance to end your hand if it doesn’t work out. Still, this decision will only appear at specific tables and never as a first resort-like. Players usually give up on their own accord before even trying anything else or waiting for someone else’s command.
One way of doing so would be through speaking: “signals” (used commonly among those who play) such as us raising one finger after every bet makes him more likely than not available.
Hand signals are a way for dealers and players to communicate easily. They help “eye in the sky” make recordings of tables so that disputes can be resolved or mistakes identified with ease, including those taken by cheaters.
The casino uses these videos as protection against employees who steal chips from their employers’ wallets – remember: when you cheat at cards, everyone knows what happens, but there’s no tangible evidence until it becomes clear which side has been dealt more accurately than expected based on how well each player was playing before any deals took place.
You can play many different versions of Blackjack with a standard deck. In most cases, the player begins by standing on 21 or more total points – this is called “busting.
Once you’ve achieved this goal, it’s time for your hand to become resolved, and either winning will pour in if successful.
Or you’ll lose everything when someone else busts instead (and gets all their bets refunded). The game also has rules regarding how hands should proceed after certain outcomes happen.
Like what happens when two players share an equal number card;-or decide who wins between 2 folks battling over 26+ Bolts.
Insurance in Blackjack
When playing Blackjack, it’s always good to know your options. You can either take the Insurance bet, which pays 2-to1 when you have an Ace up or simply cash out at any point during play (and risk losing everything)
If there aren’t enough players left who still think they’ve got a winning hand after everyone has already placed their bets.
In a face-down game, if you have more than one hand, it is allowed for you to look at all of them before deciding.
This rule also applies when playing cards and other items that can be used as tactics in this type of strategy card game, such as chess, where players are required by law not only to know their moves but those of others too.
Insurance is another way for the player to increase their winning odds. Blackjack players can take advantage of this, as well.
Insurance bets are not a good idea because they lose money in the long run.
The dealer has Blackjack less than one-third of the time, and when players take insurance on ten-valued cards, it only works about ten percent of the time, which means there’s an ace somewhere else that will beat you every single time.
Card counting techniques can help you identify when to make an insurance bet.
If the hole card has more than a one-in-three chance of being 10, then it’s advantageous for players who are counting cards, and they will know what play requires this strategy most often.
Blackjack Rule variations and their effects on house edge
If the house edge changes due to rule changes, it will be reduced by one percentage point. This means that instead of having a 10% advantage, you only have 9%.
The following passage might help explain this better: “For example, if there was previously a +10%, Now, You Only Have A 9% Advantage.”
Blackjack has a house edge which means that certain rules are in place to maintain fairness for all players. The casinos will always do everything they can, within reason, because it’s not like they’re trying their hardest to ensure people don’t break any laws or anything.
There is some math behind what kind of deviations from basic strategy lead towards an increase/decrease from 2 per 1 (or even less), but if someone goes against those odds, you’ll see more losses than wins pretty quickly once gambling becomes your passion.
Dealer hits soft 17
The blackjack game has many rules that determine how to play the hand. One rule is whether or not you can hit on soft 17, and this often appears as “H17” with an abbreviation for it such as S-bies (stands for stand(on)-soft).
This means if your total beats whatever card was dealt into place by another player without counting their face-up rounds, they have beaten us at our own game.
However, there’s also a variation where we must always take one more than what was given, which increases the house edge slightly, lessening the advantage by perhaps 0 .2%.
The Number of decks
When you use fewer decks in blackjack, it increases the chance of drawing an Ace. The higher probability means that if players draw ten on their first card, then there’s a greater possibility for them to get another perfect score when playing with only two instead 4 or 6 decks used, which also leads to pushing harder because trying desperately does not feel as rewarding without any cards left.
The lessening effect can be seen through all things equal – this includes chances becoming more achievable due to lower odds against achieving something major (such as winning money) and even losing opportunities rather conveniently handed right back.
Casinos often tighten other rules in games with fewer decks, like blackjack.
When offering single deck versions of this game and not doubling on soft hands or after splitting, it’s more likely that you’ll disallow re-spinning (or repeatedly returning cards to the shoe), restrict resplitting, etc., and require higher minimum bets than normal.
All so as not to give away too much free play. In addition, they may pay players 2:1 should one lucky bat bring them their version.
In the following table, we see that as more decks are added to a game (in this case, blackjack), there is an exponential increase in house edge.
This means that every additional card dealt by either player-dealer or banker beating both subjects can be beneficial if not necessary when considering how many hands one would like to play before betting blinds higher than initial bets per hand become costly, at least mathematically speaking.
|Number of decks
|House Advantage Percentage
Late OR early surrender
Surrendering is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if their first card is an ace or ten, players can choose to accept it with no hole card checked.
This rule protocol has come to be known as “late” Surrenders because they happen after all other cards have been dealt but before any surrender opt-out opportunities are exhausted (early survivors get one chance only).
Later versions of this game would allow you more than one opportunity per round – if there were an early Bird style option, we could’ve played both sides at once.
Surrendered hands are always the worst, but it’s worth fighting through when you have a one-in-four chance at winning the total bet versus losing half and pushing the rest.
In many gambling games, when two hands have the same value, they can split them and continue betting. The player places an additional wager while returning cards between themselves until they win or lose all their money.
Some lotteries allow players unlimited resplits, whereas others may only permit a certain number, such as four per hand – there’s always something different about every bet because you never know what will happen next.
Hit OR Resplit Split Aces
A common rule is that one card will be dealt to each ace, and it cannot be split. However, there are some variants of blackjack where you can hit your hand resulting from an earlier deal (or vice versa). If this happens, the player reduces their house edge by about 0%.
In addition, if they allow resplitting or re-dealing, these count as additional cards, which may result in higher scores and more losses should those hands not come up infectiously lucky.
No Double After Splitting
By eliminating the ability to double down on two card hands after a split, casinos increase their house edge by about 0.12%.
Double on 9/10/11 or 10/11 only
The Reno rule is an unfortunate addition to the game that serves only one purpose – increasing house odds. Doubling down hard totals of 9, 10, or 11 (under European rules) can be advantageous for some players. Still, it’s generally unnecessary since basic strategy also calls for some initial betting with these numbers.
Advanced bettors will identify situations where they might want more than two coins thrown in case their original wager fails and leaves them without any money left over before making adjustments depending upon what type(s)of play has been requested by others at this point.
OBO and No hole card
Most non-American casinos play “no hole card” games, meaning that the dealer does not draw nor consult their second dice until after all players have finished making decisions.
With this rule in place, it’s a rarely correct basic strategy to double or split against them ten/ace since a Blackjack will result if you go ahead with those bets.
The only exception is when playing pair vs. 10, where it’s still okay but know what might happen beforehand by knowing how many cards they’re holding back.
The No HOLE Card gameplay adds approximately 0% extra house edge, so make sure your knowledge matches up accordingly.
The “original bets only” rule variation in certain no-hole card games states that if you lose to a dealer blackjack, only your mandatory initial bet (“original”) is forfeit. All optional bets like doubles or splits are pushed. It’s also known by the acronym OBO.
It has similar effects on basic strategy and the house edge as reverting into playing without hole cards.
When this happens, there might be opportunities for me since people usually stick with their original choice even after losing parts of them. Some may have missed seeing something important because they were focused elsewhere.
Altered Cash out for a Winning Blackjack
The 1:1 game of blackjack is one where the player can expect to receive a payout equal to their bet, no matter what.
This type does not offer any advantage to either side; however, it’s more damaging than 6:5 or even 2-2 because fewer cards are dealt, which means that each hand has higher odds against them (4 out five times).
This rule variation has become so popular among U .S casinos because of its fairness and how easy they make life easier when playing video versions – since you always know exactly where everything falls into place without having too many distractions.
What if The Dealer Wins Ties?
The ‘catastrophic’ rule is a tough one. If you’re dealt two fits to be perfectly even, and it turns out that neither side has anything better than an equal number of cards, then the game will tell us which way they want their money gone. Whether towards losing all bets or winning them back entirely before pushing new ones placing more wagers onto this strange tableau.
Basic strategy is the best way to play any hand and minimize long term losses.
The following is an example of a basic strategy to apply in games with these specifications:
- Four to eight decks
- The dealer hits on a soft 17
- A double is allowed after a split
- Only original bets are lost on dealer blackjack
- S = Stand
- H = Hit
- Dh = Double (if not allowed, then hit)
- Ds = Double (if not allowed, then stand)
- SP = Split
- Uh = Surrender (if not allowed, then hit)
- Us = Surrender (if not allowed, then stand)
- Usp = Surrender (if not allowed, then split)
What’s the best way to win at Blackjack? The answer, as with many things in life and gambling, included: it depends on what kind of game you’re playing.
For example, if your table minimums are higher than normal (e., A14), then taking insurance can be an option that benefits players more so since they’ll receive payouts when their hand meets certain criteria, such as quarter spots or having two cards worth 10 points each.
However, this may not apply everywhere–for instance, stand-alone rules like soft 17 only appear at higher limit tables today, where players have handicaps by choosing between specific options.
The casino will always have a house edge, but it’s possible to reduce this with good play.
When you follow a basic strategy in blackjack games – which means staying close enough so that your opponent doesn’t bet ahead of time on different cards than what they’ve got – the only thing left is luck.
The House Advantage in blackjack games is between 0.5% and 1%. This makes it one of the cheapest casino table games for players, who can get an advantage by playing with voucher codes or 2:1 payouts offered through certain promotions at your favorite gambling spot.
Composition-Dependent Blackjack Strategy
There are two consequences when a player has 10 points versus 4.
First, they should stand if it is an even number (8 vs. 6).
Second, players will always hit in single-deck games because there’s no point carrying over cards from another round into this one – so make your best judgment based on what you know.
The 10 is a dangerous card because it can be used as an excuse to go bust.
It also makes hitting safer since you’ll only have two options if your hand has one or more ten-valued cards. Draw the tile that was originally put down by the dealer (and lose), hit without looking at what’s been played so far first, or exercise poor judgment by checking how many decks remain in play before deciding which suit should come up next time around.
The difference in expected reward between basic and composition-dependent strategies becomes smaller with more decks.
Using a strategy that relies on how well you can predict what cards other players might draw first is disadvantageous, but it’s still better than just going for whatever hand comes along at random.
If we were playing six-deck games, then there would only be one extra victory possible out of every 100 thousand games (or three chances total).
Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the 1960s.
Advantage play is when you use skills such as memory, computation, and observation to win more games than your average casino visitor does with basic luck. This can give an edge that makes casinos want nothing else from them.
Some techniques used by these skilled gamers include:
During a blackjack shoe, players can infer which cards remain hidden from their accounting and exposure. These inferences can be used in different ways:
The best way to increase your chance of winning is by taking advantage of any weaknesses in the game. For example, if you have an abundance of Aces and Tens left in the Card Deck, then it might be worth doubling down on those bets as they are more likely than Notable Cards that will come up empty-handed (especially with two-thirds fewer cards).
Card counters use a running count to make betting and playing decisions.
The starting point is 0 for newly shuffled decks, but unbalanced counts may be started at any value depending on how many decks are used during play. The higher number results in less risk because there will always remain an even chance of getting a ten or higher card from the shoe when it comes up later than expected.
While this reduces your chances slightly overall (lesser odds), it also means that if you do happen upon such high-value cards early on, you’ll have plenty left over.
Blackjack players who use basic strategy can expect a house edge as low as 0.5%, but it may be more like 1% if they’re card counting.
The difference between the two will depend on how good your Poker face is and what kind of game you want to play – betting or hands-free, where luck plays less into decisions made by skilled players.
Casinos always look for ways to throw players off their game, but it’s not all that difficult when you have the right tools.
Card counting works best with single deck games because there is less risk involved and, therefore, more security measures taken by casinos to prevent counters from winning too often or taking any money away through cheating methods like Flooding (a technique where multiple people simultaneously show cards they hold).
This makes sense since these types of bets don’t require anyone else besides yourself so long as every other player has been accounted for before deciding on your turn. But things get interesting again.
Card counting is legal unless the counter has an external device, but some casinos might ban card counters from playing Blackjack.
Shuffle tracking is a technique that can be used in multi-deck games where players keep track of groups or slugs ( Known as clumps) through the shuffle and then bet according to when those cards come into play from new shoes.
RELATED: Different Ways to Shuffle Cards.
This requires excellent eyesight, but it’s harder for others to figure out since they don’t know what order all these different decks will appear at any given time.
Arnold Snyder brought the development of shuffle tracking technology to the general public in his Blackjack Forum magazine articles.
He analyzed player edges based on how many cards you can track and when they can be advantageously used; this book gave mathematical formulas that explained these findings in complete detail.
Jerry L Patterson also developed an effective method using clumps – or groupings-of favorable card faces- to cut them out if necessary because there’s always something worth watching out after.
Identifying concealed cards
Some players take advantage by identifying cards from distinctive wear markings on their backs or hole-carding ( observing during the dealing process; viewing a card’s front side), which are generally legal though their status in particular jurisdictions may vary.
Blackjack Side bets
Side betting is a popular strategy in Blackjack. It’s often offered at many tables and can include side bets on different card combinations or even just off-table outcomes like who gets dealt the first hand.
- With the card total at 19, 20, or 21, there’s a good chance you’ll be winning.
- Your hand is a pair. It’s not the best card in your deck, but it has its uses.
- With the suited cards in your hand, it is important to remember that you can bet any number of times on each card. This means if someone gives up their K-Q (“Royal match”), for example, they will often have three different chances at winning one round–the same as having four.
- If you have a straight or three-of-kind hand in poker, it is said that “you are playing your cards right (21+3).
- The player’s hand is strong and lucky, with 20 points.
- Dealer upcard is an important part of poker. It’s the value that lies in between your two cards, and it can decide who wins a hand.
- The first card drawn to the dealer will result in an easy bust.
- The players are lucky because they’ve been dealt a hand that allows them to match the dealer’s card.
The side bet is typically placed in a designated area next to the box for main wagers.
A player wishing to place an additional side bet has several options, including Blackjack if that’s what’s available on their table. Or they can also choose from other games such as craps and roulette, which have more than one option alongside those offered by cards tables.
Side bets are more likely than other types of wagers to have an edge against them.
A side count designed specifically for these types can improve your chances of winning. But it’s not enough that all sides offer such high win rates; therefore, betting on them may be tricky without using some form or additional strategy like card counting.
To ensure that the side bet is properly recorded, it’s common for one person on each team to be dedicated solely to counting.
In Blackjack, the goal is to finish among top chip-holders. Depending on the number of competitors, a tournament may be held with one or two players qualifying from each table after certain deals have been made.
Another format seen in Elimination Blackjack drops the lowest stacked player at pre-determined points during the competition.
A good strategy for these types of tournaments will differ depending on whether you are playing against live opponents and what type/amounts wagered (inclusive) because this adds yet another dimension.
Blackjack is one of the most popular casino games, and you can find it on some electronic consoles.
The rules generally favor houses because they pay out even money for winning blackjacks.
However, this doesn’t apply in video or online form where each round comes with an RNG (unpredictable random generator) which makes card counting ineffective – so have fun.
Blackjack is a popular game among gamblers. It has not been adapted for casino play.
However, many variants have been created to make betting more interesting and engage with different strategies players can use when playing their favorite card counting or non-counting methods.
Check these below-mentioned Blackjack related games:
Spanish 21 is a game of chance where players double their bet any time they get cards with the number 21.
It has liberal rules, such as paying out bonuses when five or more appear in one hand (plus 6-8 other combinations), 7–7s can be played on top after late surrendering without going back to play another card if you’re lucky enough for an additional winnings bonus.
The only drawback is that? There aren’t 10’s – but Jacks Queens Kings still count towards winning this tableau windshield wager at Australian casinos under Pontoon.
The variations of Blackjack that you can find in a casino are endless. One such variation, 21st-century Blackjack (or “Vegas Style” as it’s called), has the player risking their hard-earned money just like any other game.
But there is more than one way for them to lose. If both players bust without exceeding 21 points each time, this form goes on the record.
However, if only one person achieves that tells us what happens when someone hits against another during play: They’ve automatically lost all bets because nothing else matters anymore.
Double Exposure Blackjack
Double Exposure Blackjack is a game of strategy and luck. The first two cards that the dealer deals face up, as well as their rank in position to one another (high or low), must be considered when deciding whether it’s worth betting on this hand; you’ll find yourself either ahead by money left over from previous rounds or way behind if someone else got lucky with an excellent pairing.
Double Attack Blackjack
Double Attack Blackjack is a game of strategy and luck. You can increase your wager after seeing the dealer’s up card, but only if you’re dealt an even-money hand like blackjacks which pay 2:1 instead.
Blackjack Switch is a popular game that can be played with two hands. The player can switch which card they get, which will change their score accordingly.
For example, if you’re dealt 10-6 while also getting five cards total (Ace counted as one), then switching those two cards makes it 14 -10 natural blackjacks pay 1:1 instead 3:2 as regular bets do, so make sure not to forget about them when playing awhile.
Super Fun 21
Super Fun 21 is a game that allows you to split your hand up as many times as possible. If the player has six cards worth 20 points, they automatically win and get paid 1:1 for their victory.
The most popular games in Britain and across Europe involve cards. Local traditional favorites like French Vingt-et Un (“Twenty One”) or German Siebzehn Und vier(17 + 4), which means “Seventeen And Four,” never allow splitting card values between two players.
An ace counts as eleven but can also be Blackjack if paired with another high-value hand to make 21 points equivalent – this game has been around since 18ο when it was first played at a military academy.
Blackjack – Hall of Fame
The Blackjack Hall of Fame is a prestigious institution that inducts new members yearly. The list includes well-known gamblers and thinkers, such as Edward O Thorp (the author behind Beat The Dealer) and Ken Uston. They popularized team play in blackjack medias with his book “Beat The Dealer,” which helped make this strategy more accessible for newer players. Arnold Snyders also deserves mention because he’s one evil mother – you can find out all about him here.
- Scarne, John (1986). Scarne’s new complete guide to gambling (Fully rev., expanded, updated ed.). Simon & Schuster.
- ^ Parlett, David (1990). A History of Card Games, OUP, Oxford, p. 78. ISBN 0-19-282905-X
- ^ Fontbona, Marc (2008). Historia del Juego en España. De la Hispania romana a nuestros días. Barcelona: Flor del Viento Ediciones. p. 89.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Depaulis 2010, pp. 238–244.
- ^ Jones 1800
- ^ Jones 1800, pp. 229–231.
- ^ Hoyle’s Games 1825, pp. 106/107.
- ^ “Blackjack History and Events”. blackjackreview.com.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Taking a hit: New blackjack odds further tilt advantage toward the house by Jeff Haney, Las Vegas Sun,